Clauses and linkers of contrast
although, however, in spite of/despite + gerund (-ing)
Often starts a new sentence and is followed by a comma
– There’s no work in the docks nowadays. However, my mum goes out to work and does a cleaning job.
Is followed by a verb in the -ing form by a noun
– I like Edinburgh in spite of/despite feeling a little homesick now and again.
Introduces a clause with a subject and a verb
– I really like Edinburgh although the weather isn’t always very good.
Comparison of adjectives and adverbs
– How do you compare two things which are equal?
– How do you make a comparison stronger?
Comparatives with much, a lot, far.
– City roads are (much/a lot/far) safer than country roads.
– Age is more/less important than gender.
– An old car is (not) as safe as a modern car.
– The safest/friendliest drivers are often women.
– The most/least frequent cause of accidents is speed.
Comparative phrase: the … the …
– The older you get the more careful you become.
– Young men drive much/a lot/(far) more/less safely than older men.
– Men don’t drive as safely/well/badly/fast as women.
– Who drives the most/least safely of all of them?
should(n’t), ought(n’t) to, had better (not)
– You should/ought to phone her now.
– You shouldn’t/oughtn’t to fuss.
– We‘d better get our skates on.
– You‘d better not be late.
Time clauses in the future with
when / as soon as
– I’ll show you when they’re ready.
– I’ll do it as soon as I can.